Kokand - one of the oldest cities in the Ferghana Valley, located in a densely populated oasis at an altitude of 450 meters above sea level. There is very little rain falls, often strong winds blow, turning into dust storms.
The area of the town is 36.61 sq km. Population of Kokand is 200,000 people.
The first mention of Kokand belong to the 10th century, historians and geographers Al-Istarhi, Ibn Haukal found the ancient name of the city: Kavakend, Hovakent, it was baptized as an epithet "nice city" - Hukyand-and-Latif. In the early 13th century Kokand was destroyed by the Mongols.
In the 17th century in the Ferghana Valley, came to power the Ming Dynasty, led by Shahruh (1709-1722), everything for the young state needed to establish the capital, a place for its two villages were selected and Targava Chamash-biy. Between two small rivers was determined place to build a fortress - Ark, administrative buildings, residential city. City called Iski-Kurgan (another name Kala-Roim-Bii).
City Building, pledged at the times of Shahruh, was continued by his sons, 'Abd al-Rahim bey and Abd al-Karim. The convenient geographical location at the entrance to the rich Ferghana Valley contributed to the Kokand growing rapidly expanding. The young state gradually grew stronger, adding to his possessions more and more land.
In the years 1776-1777 for the first time in Kokand began to mint their own coins. Like medieval towns, Kokand was surrounded 18 km long mud wall with twelve gates. Deep ditches in three rows, pass around the exterior walls, filled with water. Two brick bridge leading to the city. One of them, Hisht- Kuprik, original design, with light benches, arranged for trade, was built during the reign of Madali Khan (1822-1842), kushbegi Khoja-Datkha (this bridge lasted until 1936).
The second bridge Derezlik built, at the reign of Hudoyarhane, by Musulmankul local builder, in 1856, was located in front of the Ark. Also, as Hisht-Kuprik, he was made of benches, was an overlay that protects people from the scorching rays of the sun.
All the city gates had names, depending on the direction of the road, where they were: North: Sarymazar, Gandzhirovan, Namangan; South: Soh, Katagan, Isfara; Western: Khujand, Kudukluk, Gaza-Yaglyk; East: Margilan, Rishtan, Taglyk.
Construction of the fortress wall was finally completed under the rule of Sherali Khan, in the years 1842-1843. Inside the city was dominated by single-storey houses, facing the street with deaf clay fences. The city was divided into four parts - Daha Sarymazar, Khujand, Rishtan, Margilan, each of which consisted of quarters - mahalla, in the early 20th century there were 72 mahallas in which there were about 10,000 households, 120 schools, they had learned from 10 up to 20 people in each, 40 madrasas.
Kokand by this time becomes one of the largest cities in Central Asia, with a population of more than 82 000 people, second in size after Tashkent. Narrow curves dusty streets led to the central square of the city - Chorsu.
As in any eastern city, in Kokand were many bazaars, various shops, they sided with caravanserais. Bazaars were specialized: for some robes were sold on the other - wood, melons, cattle, skullcaps, salt, oil and etc.
Every ruler cared to immortalize his name therefore build a lot of religious buildings: mosques, minarets, they towered over the city, many of these monuments have survived.
In 1875 the city was captured by Russian troops. In 1876, the Kokand Khanate was abolished. Fergana region was formed which became part of the Turkestan province. Kokand khanate lasted more than 150 years. It consisted of the Ferghana Valley with the cities Margilan, Andijan, Namangan, Tashkent, Chimkent, part of the territory of Kyrgyzstan with the city Osh; mountain areas of Tajikistan with Kulob, Karategin, Darwaz, Khujand.
History of Kokand late 19th and early 20th century, after joining Russia, a period when the city began to form capitalist relations, entailing capital inflow from Russia and other countries began to open local and foreign trade companies, banks. Built public buildings, banks, shops, private mansions.
Kokand colonial architecture of this period is the building of Public Assembly, the Office of Namangan railway line, the State Bank, banks of the Volga-Kama, Russian, Chinese, Siberian Commercial, United; Commercial school ... they were built by Russian architects in the modern style, classicism. Industry appears for the primary processing of raw cotton, vegetable oil, tanneries.