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Short review of Ferghana Valley


The Ferghana Valley is an intermountain basin, stretching in length of 300 km and a width of 170 km. To the north it looms high ridges of the Kurama and Chatkal ranges, from the east - the Ferghana and Atoynakskogo, from the south - the Alai Range.

Once the Ferghana Valley was a shallow bay of the ancient Sarmatian Sea, as evidenced by the marine sedimentary rocks and sometimes found on the slopes of fossilized shells.

Diverse nature of the Ferghana Valley, in the central part can be found areas of sandy desert with dunes covered with thickets of haloxylon; in the foothills of desert hills - adyrs, vegetation appears only in the spring; mountain slopes are covered with walnut and juniper forests, wild apple, maple, birch; extend above them snow-capped peaks, where originate numerous streams that merge to form rivers, carrying their water in the Syr Darya - the second largest waterway Medium Asia.

Surrounded by mountains, preventing the penetration of cold air masses in the valley, lies the green oasis with cultivated fields, numerous gardens. The favorable climate, abundance of water contributed to what is already in ancient times there appeared settled farming.

In the 3 century BC, in the central and eastern part of the valley there was a state association, which in Chinese sources called Davan (Dayuan) and the Indo-Iranian sources is called Parganas (parkana). The capital of this state was the city of Ershi (Mingtepa, Andijan region). The city was surrounded by a strong wall mud.

In addition there are two more major cities - Guyshan (castle, near the town of Moog Kasansay of Namangan region), 1 century AD, became the capital of the state and city of Yuchen (Osh district, Kyrgyzstan).

Language of the people who inhabited Davan (Pargan), was close to the Sogdian, Parthian. At the head of state was the governor, who appoints and dismisses the council of elders.

More than 70 cities and towns were in this state associations, people involved in viticulture, agriculture, growing rice, wheat, alfalfa and kept cattle. Far beyond the state was the glory of the famous horses of Davan, which was called "the heavenly."

The people of Davan were skilled craftsmen able to process metal produced from silver and gold, various jewelry, ornaments, mined mercury and other minerals.

Davan lasted until 3rd century BC, and then it was ruled by the Kushan Empire, and in the 5th century BC became part of the state Eftalits. This state lasted until the middle of the 6th century.

Since the second half of the 6th century, the territory of the Ferghana Valley was ruled by the Turkic Khanate. 7th century was marked by the first campaign of the Arabs in the territory of present Central Asia, which they completely subdued in the first half of the 8th century. In 822 the Tahirids came to the power.

From the middle of the 9th to the end of the 10th century, the valley is part of the Samanids state. Then they have been replaced by the Qarakhanids (end of the 10th c. until end of the 12th century). From beginning of the 13th and the first half of the 14th century - period enslavement of Central Asian people by Mongols. The second half of the 14th century and the end of the 15th century, Fergana in the State of the Timurids. The beginning and the end of the 16th century - dynasty of the Sheibanids. The beginning and the second half of the 17th century - in the State of Ashtarkhanids.

In the middle of the 18th century, in the Ferghana Valley, a new state union Kokand Khanate with its capital in Kokand. In 1876 Kokand Khanate ceased to exist and was founded Fergana region, which became part of the Turkestan province.

The flat part of the Fergana Valley is 22 thousand square kilometers. About 60% of the territory of Uzbekistan accounted for 25% refers to Tajikistan and 15% - to Kyrgyzstan. Three areas of Uzbekistan are located here: Ferghana, Namangan and Andijan.

It is the most populated region of the republic, which is a 30% of the population of Uzbekistan, and the average population density per 500 persons/1 sq. km.
Ferghana region

Population: 3,128,500 people
Location: the southern part of the Fergana Valley.
Territory: 6.8 thousand square kilometers.
Area phone codes: +998 732 (phone number)